EMPLOYEE HANDBOOK
 2012 U.S. Compliance Systems, Inc. (888) 475-5353. Permission is granted to copy for internal use.
Safety Program
Employee Handbook
Prepared by:
in association with:
U.S. Compliance Systems, Inc.
LOVIN CONTRACTING COMPANY INC.
LOVIN CONTRACTING COMPANY INC.
LOVIN CONTRACTING COMPANY INC.
EMPLOYEE HANDBOOK
 2012 U.S. Compliance Systems, Inc. (888) 475-5353. Permission is granted to copy for internal use.
Disclaimer: This Employee Handbook is not all inclusive. It does reflect selected portions of the safety program belonging to:
To the best of our knowledge, the information contained herein is accurate. U.S. Compliance Systems, Inc. accepts no responsibility for errors or omissions.
LOVIN CONTRACTING COMPANY INC.
LOVIN CONTRACTING COMPANY INC.
P.O. BOX 758
ROBBINSVILLE, NC 28771
EMPLOYEE HANDBOOK
 2012 U.S. Compliance Systems, Inc. (888) 475-5353. Permission is granted to copy for internal use.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Page Topic
1 SAFETY COMMITMENT
2 SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS
2 Housekeeping
2 Emergency Medical Response
3 Fire Prevention
4 Portable Fire Extinguishers
4 Fire Protection
5 First Aid & First Aid Kits
6 Fluids
6 Personal Protective Equipment
7 Lifting, Pushing & Pulling
8 Slips, Trips, & Falls
9 Basic Tools
9 Powered Tools
10 Ground Fault Circuit Interrupters
10 Signs & Tags
11 Adequate Lighting
11 Appropriate Clothing
11 Personal Hygiene
11 Drugs & Alcohol
11 Accident Investigation
11 Postings
12 Safety Meetings
12 Enforcement
14 HAZARDOUS JOB SITE MATERIALS
14 Asbestos
14 Lead
15 Crystalline Silica
16 SPECIFIC OSHA COMPLIANCE PROGRAMS
16 Control of Hazardous Energy – Lockout/Tagout
17 Exposure Control for Bloodborne Pathogens & Other Infectious Materials
18 Fall Protection
19 Forklifts
19 Hazard Communication
20 Hearing Conservation
20 Permit-Required Confined Space
21 Personal Protective Equipment
22 Respiratory Protection
23 Scaffolds & Ladders
LOVIN CONTRACTING COMPANY INC.
LOVIN CONTRACTING COMPANY INC.
1 EMPLOYEE HANDBOOK
 2012 U.S. Compliance Systems, Inc. (888) 475-5353. Permission is granted to copy for internal use.
SAFETY COMMITMENT
We are committed to ensuring that you do not work in an environment that is unsanitary, hazardous, or dangerous to your health or safety. You will be instructed on the recognition and avoidance of unsafe conditions and the regulations applicable to your work environment to control or eliminate any hazards or other exposure to illness or injury.
Using the safety and health training programs provided by the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), as well as other reference materials, company safety training, policies, and procedures will be developed and implemented as needed.
Frequent and regular inspections of our facilities, materials, and equipment will be made by the Safety Program Administrator or designated persons.
You may operate equipment or machinery only if you are qualified by training or experience. Machinery, tools, material, or equipment that you find either not in compliance with a particular OSHA standard or that you determine is unsafe will be identified as such by tagging; locking the controls; or physically removing it from its place of operation.
Safety takes a commitment from all persons from senior management to the newest hire. It is expected that you will actively participate in safety training and perform your work in a safe manner.
The primary beneficiary of maintaining a safe work environment is you. You are the person who will not sustain an occupational injury or illness. A safe work site, additionally, protects fellow employees and those with whom we work. Performing tasks in a safe manner allows us to work more efficiently, reduces the possibility of equipment damage, eliminates costly citations, and enhances our opportunities to procure more work. Working safely has nothing but positive benefits to you and the company.
If confronted with a new task for which you do not know the proper safety procedures, ask for instruction from your supervisor before proceeding.
Do not hesitate to point out observed safety deficiencies to your supervisor — you may prevent an injury to yourself or a fellow employee.
OSHA standards that are applicable to the work you do are readily accessible.
LOVIN CONTRACTING COMPANY INC.
LOVIN CONTRACTING COMPANY INC.
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SAFETY CONSIDERATIONS
You should have a working understanding of the below safety principles/
topics as they apply in all workplace situations. Safety procedures for specific tasks will be addressed through formal or on-the-job training depending on the task.
On every project, there will be a competent person with the knowledge and authority to stop work should a hazardous condition develop that cannot be immediately resolved.
Regular and frequent inspections will be made to ensure that established safety procedures are being followed.
HOUSEKEEPING
You are to maintain a neat and orderly work area as far as practical. Housekeeping and general cleanliness have a direct effect on safety and health. Proper housekeeping can prevent slips and falls, allow unhampered egress in the event of an emergency, prevent falling object injuries, enhance fire safety, and prevent the infestation of vermin. Listed below are general housekeeping rules:
a. All walking/working surfaces shall be kept clean and dry.
b. Do not allow debris to accumulate.
c. All stored materials will be neatly stacked.
d. All containers, when not in use, will be sealed.
e. No objects will be left unattended on stairways.
f. Entrances and exits will be properly marked and not blocked.
EMERGENCY MEDICAL RESPONSE
DO NOT PROVIDE ANY MEDICAL ASSISTANCE FOR WHICH YOU ARE NOT QUALIFIED BY CERTIFIED TRAINING
Should an injury occur that requires an emergency medical responder, the below listed actions will be taken in the order given:
1. Call the posted emergency response number.
2. Provide any medical assistance you are trained and certified to do.
DO NOT provide any medical assistance you are not trained to do. LOVIN CONTRACTING COMPANY INC.
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3. Designate an individual to direct the emergency responders to the injured party and provide Material Safety Data Sheets if applicable.
4. Notify your supervisor who, in turn, will notify the office.
FIRE PREVENTION
Fire prevention deals not with handling a fire emergency, but rather preventing a fire in the first place. To reduce the likelihood of a fire, you must adhere to the following rules:
1. There shall be no smoking except in designated smoking areas. Smoking materials will be totally extinguished and placed in appropriate receptacles. Under no circumstances will there be smoking during refueling of vehicles or within 50 feet of flammable materials.
2. All chemical products will be handled and stored in accordance with the procedures noted on their individual MSDS.
3. Heat producing equipment will be properly maintained and operated per the manufacturer’s instructions to prevent accidental ignition of combustible materials.
4. Precautions will be taken when working with an open flame and those areas will be made fire safe by removing or protecting combustibles from ignition.
5. Combustible liquids must be stored in approved containers.
6. Chemical spills — particularly combustible and reactive liquids — must be cleaned up immediately. Damaged chemical containers and cleanup materials must be properly disposed.
[Note: Exercise care! Information on appropriate personal protective equipment; proper disposal; proper cleanup procedures; required
ventilation; etc. is found on the product’s MSDS.] 7. Combustible liquids and trash must be segregated and kept from ignition sources.
8. Keep clear access to fire hydrants as well as portable fire extinguishers.
9. Practice good housekeeping! LOVIN CONTRACTING COMPANY INC.
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PORTABLE FIRE EXTINGUISHERS
Know the location of fire extinguishers, what class of fire extinguisher is appropriate for what type of fire, and how to safely use a fire extinguisher.
Portable fire extinguishers will be located allowing for ease of accessibility.
Portable fire extinguishers will be distributed as indicated below:
CLASS DISTRIBUTION NOTES
A 75 feet or less travel distance Use on wood, paper, trash.
“A” between yourself and the
on a green triangle extinguisher
B 50 feet or less travel distance Use on flammable liquid, gas.
“B” between the hazard area and
on a red square yourself
C Based on the appropriate pat- Use on electrical fires.
“C” tern for the existing Class A or
on a blue circle Class B hazards
D 75 feet or less travel distance Use on combustible metals.
“D” between the combustible metal
on a yellow star working area and the extinguisher
or other containers of Class D
extinguishing agent.
Using the wrong fire extinguisher on some fires can actually spread the fire. Portable fire extinguishers suitable for ABC class fires will be available on all job sites – at least one extinguisher will be on each floor of a project, near the stairway.
FIRE PROTECTION
The phone number of the local fire department as well as our facility address will be posted or readily accessible.
If a fire should occur, all personnel and the local fire department will be notified. In all emergency situations, you should:
a. Remain calm.
b. Speak clearly and slowly.
c. Give the exact location.
d. Describe the situation.
e. Give the phone number from where you are calling.
f. Do not hang up until told to do so. LOVIN CONTRACTING COMPANY INC.
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FIRST AID & FIRST AID KITS
Should a medical emergency occur, call 911 or, if 911 service is not available, call the emergency medical response phone number posted at the job site. Explain the situation clearly and follow the emergency response team’s instructions.
If an emergency vehicle is being sent to the job site, establish easy access and keep on-lookers away.
Unless trained and licensed in CPR/first aid and a designated first aid provider as an additional job as part of the company bloodborne pathogen program, employees will not expose themselves to blood or other bodily fluids of other employees at any time.
Per OSHA, first aid is limited to:
a. Using a non-prescription medication, such as aspirin, at non-prescription strength.
b. Cleaning, flushing or soaking wounds on the surface of the skin;
c. Using wound coverings such as bandages, Band-Aids™, gauze pads, etc.; or using butterfly bandages or Steri-Strips™.
d. Using hot or cold therapy.
e. Using any non-rigid means of support, such as elastic bandages, wraps, non-rigid back belts, etc..
f. Using temporary immobilization devices while transporting an accident victim (e.g., splints, slings, neck collars, back boards, etc.).
g. Drilling of a fingernail or toenail to relieve pressure, or draining fluid from a blister.
h. Using eye patches.
i. Removing foreign bodies from the eye using only irrigation or a cotton swab.
j. Removing splinters or foreign material from areas other than the eye by irrigation, tweezers, cotton swabs or other simple means.
k. Using finger guards.
l. Using massages.
m.Drinking fluids for relief of heat stress.
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You must know the location and contents of first aid kits. These kits are worthless if not readily accessible. First aid kits will not be locked up.
First aid supplies generally include: adhesive bandages, bandage compresses, scissors, tweezers, triangular bandages, antiseptic soap or pads, eye dressing, and other items that are appropriate for the work we do.
First aid kits will be replenished as items are used. Sterile items will be wrapped and sealed and used only once. Other items such as tape or scissors can be reused and should be kept clean. In the absence of plentiful amounts of clean water, eye flush will be available.
FLUIDS
From a safety standpoint, you must not neglect your need for potable (drinkable) fluids.
On job sites, exertion and heat dictate the need for plenty of water.
From a life process standpoint, what fluid intake is doing is keeping you healthy by allowing your body to maintain its core body temperature at its appropriate level as well as transporting, within your body, nourishment, gases, and waste.
Imagine your body as a water based chemical factory that functions only within a narrow temperature range. Sweating (water loss) cools your body and this fluid must be replaced.
Drink plenty of water!
PERSONAL PROTECTIVE EQUIPMENT
A hazard assessment will be to determine what types of personal protective equipment (PPE) are appropriate. A major part of this hazard assessment will be determining what PPE needs can be eliminated through feasible engineering controls or work procedures.
Types of hazard categories that are considered are: impact; penetration; compression; chemical; heat; harmful dust; and light radiation.
The focus of PPE is to eliminate eye, hand, foot, limb, and head injury. Visitors exposed to the identified hazards will be loaned appropriate PPE (and given instruction in its use) prior to hazard exposure.
You must understand the limitations of your PPE; the correct procedure for putting on, adjusting, and removing the PPE; and the proper care, maintenance, and useful life of the PPE.
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Cleanliness of PPE is of importance particularly when dealing with eye protection where fogging, scratches, or dirt can render the PPE a hazard rather than protection from a hazard.
An inexpensive pair of safety glasses could save your priceless eyesight.
Unique PPE required for job performance such as respirators, ear plugs, safety goggles, etc. will be supplied to you. You are responsible for maintenance of the equipment issued to you. Items of PPE that are damaged or non-functioning should be turned in to the supervisor for repair or replacement.
Normal PPE generally protects you from an instant injury such as a projectile in the eye. Respiratory and hearing protection, while PPE, fall under more stringent standards than hard hats, for example. Respiratory and hearing hazards can take years to present themselves. Hearing protection and respirator selection are more complicated, procedurally, than ordinary PPE (i.e., hard hats, safety glasses, gloves, steel toed boots, etc.). Their uses are governed by specific standards that require in depth training based on objective scientific data.
For personal comfort and to eliminate nuisance noises and nuisance respiratory conditions that are not at or above the threshold level for required protection, dust masks and ear plugs may be used at any time.
LIFTING, PUSHING & PULLING
Back injuries are often caused by the obvious — putting excessive strain on the lower back by lifting an object that is too heavy or awkward, or by bending and/or twisting while lifting.
However, lifting injuries are also caused by less obvious reasons:
a. poor physical condition
b. poor posture
c. poor judgment (lifting, pulling, pushing an object that is obviously too heavy or awkward without seeking assistance or a mechanical lifting device.)
d. lack of exercise
e. excessive body weight
Proper lifting techniques are important for employee safety. Below are lifting techniques that will reduce the likelihood of injury:
a. lift objects comfortably, not necessarily the quickest or easiest way.
b. lift, push, and pull with your legs, not your arms or back.
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c. when changing direction while moving an object, turn with your feet, not by twisting at the waist.
d. avoid lifting higher than your shoulder height.
e. when standing while working, stand straight.
f. when walking, maintain an erect posture; wear slip-resistant, supportive shoes.
g. when carrying heavy objects, carry them close to the body and avoid carrying them in one hand.
h. when heavy or bulky objects need to be moved, obtain help or use a mechanical aid such as a dolly, hand truck, forklift, etc..
i. when stepping down from a height of more than eight inches, step down backwards, not forward.
j. handle heavy objects close to the body — avoid reaching out.
k. lift gradually and smoothly. Avoid jerky motions.
l. maintain a clear line of vision.
SLIPS, TRIPS & FALLS
Slips, trips, and falls are among the most common job site accidents and they are easily preventable. Below are some of the causes of slips, trips, and falls:
a. running on the job site.
b. engaging in horseplay.
c. working off a ladder that is not firmly positioned.
d. carrying an object that blocks line of vision.
e. work boots not laced or buckled.
f. working off a scaffold without safety rails.
g. using ladders that have oil and grease on the rungs.
h. not using a handrail on steps.
i. messy work areas with debris strewn about.
j. not paying attention to what one is doing.
This list can go on and on, but all the above are easily preventable by adherence to common safety procedures, common sense, and awareness of potential hazards on the job site.
LOVIN CONTRACTING COMPANY INC.
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BASIC TOOLS
Much is written about powered tools and the importance of guards and other safety related topics. Seldom addressed are the hazards associated with simple, non-powered tools. Every tool is potentially dangerous if not properly used. Basic tools would include, but not be limited to: hammers, screwdrivers, shovels, shears, utility knives, and wrenches.
Below are five guidelines for basic tool use.
1. Never use a tool for a purpose other than that for which it was designed!
Improper use of a tool will certainly damage it and may result in injury if the tool slips or breaks.
2. Never exceed a tool’s design limits.
If a tool cannot do the job being properly used, you’ve got the wrong tool. Exceeding a tool’s design limits will certainly damage the tool and, of course, expose yourself to injury if it slips or breaks.
3. Inspect tools before use.
Cracked or splintered handles, loose heads, “mushroomed” striking surfaces, dull chisels/blades, bent shafts, worn or deformed ends — all are potentially dangerous conditions for tool use. Either repair or replace damaged tools — do not use them!
4. Clean tools after use.
It is much easier to clean and/or lubricate tools immediate after use than waiting until the tools becomes rusty or encrusted with gunk.
5. Store tools properly.
If tools are properly stored automatically, you, over time, save hours not having to look for tools. From a safety standpoint, you will have the right tool at the right time. Additionally, by having tools properly stored, you’ll prevent the possibility of rummaging around in a tool box and cutting yourself on an exposed sharp object.
POWERED TOOLS
You may operate powered tools only if authorized. This authorization will be granted after it has been demonstrated that you have the ability to safely operate these items through training or experience.
Seemingly simple powered tools, misused, can cause serious injury. Understand the operator’s manual and never bypass any guards.
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GROUND FAULT CIRCUIT INTERRUPTERS (GFCI)
When you are using temporary wiring — extension cords are a form of temporary wiring — ground fault circuit interrupters must be used. A GFCI is designed to prevent you from receiving a dangerous electrical shock.
Because 115V at 15A is so common, its safety is often taken for granted. The danger is not the voltage, it is the Amps (current). 0.015 Amps is enough current to cause a painful shock. The table below was prepared by the National Safety Council and the Pacific Telegraph Company:
Safe Current Values
Amps
0.001A (1mA)
Cannot be felt
0.001 – 0.008A (1 – 8 mA)
Felt, but not painful: muscle control is not lost.
Unsafe Current Values
Amps
0.015 – 0.02A (15 – 20mA)
Painful shock: muscular control lost; cannot let go; not harmful to body organs
0.02 – 0.09A (20 – 90mA)
Burns; breathing extremely difficult; sore muscles
0.1 – 0.2A (100mA – 200mA)
*Ventricular Fibrillation (a fatal heart condition)
0.2 – 2A (200mA – 2A)
Burns; paralysis of the lungs; nerve damaged if above 600V
2A and up
frying currents; severe burns of
two types:
1. External – caused by arching on contact
2. Internal – cooking of the organs and flesh.
Results in: amputation or destruction
of vital organs
*Ventricular Fibrillation is essentially a fluttering of the heart which is useless in circulating blood.
If you do receive a severe shock, you should seek medical evaluation even if there is no apparent damage.
GFCI’s are required by all 120-volt, 15-, 20-, and 30-ampere receptacle outlets that are not a part of the permanent wiring of a building. GFCI’s provide employee safety by detecting lost current resulting from a short, overheating, and/or ground fault and “tripping” or cutting off the current within as little as 1/40th of a second.
A GFCI will not protect one who comes in contact with two hot wires or a hot wire and a neutral wire. A GFCI will provide protection against fires, overheating, damage to insulation, and, the most common form of electrical shock hazard — the ground fault. Always test a GFCI before use.
SIGNS & TAGS
You must pay heed to the various signs and tags found throughout our facility. Color coding assists in determining the level of danger:
red = danger
yellow = caution
orange = warning
white = safety instruction
fluorescent orange = biological hazard
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ADEQUATE LIGHTING
You must see what you are doing. A simple guideline for adequate lighting is this: if you are not sure if you have enough light for your work, you don’t!
APPROPRIATE CLOTHING
Wear clothing that is appropriate for your work. You may be exposed to heat, cold, rain, or snow. Wear clothing that provides comfort, yet be sure that it cannot snag on equipment.
PERSONAL HYGIENE
You will have access to restroom facilities as needed. Do not take job site chemicals home with you on your skin or clothing.
DRUGS AND ALCOHOL
With the exception of over the counter drugs such as aspirin or drugs prescribed by a physician, you may have no drugs or alcohol within our facility. Alcohol and drug abuse cause an unacceptable level of safety hazard. If you are found to be under the influence of drugs and/or alcohol, you will be immediately removed from your work assignment by your supervisor and further disciplinary action will be taken by the Safety Director.
If you are taking prescription medication that reduces motor skills, you should report this to your supervisor for appropriate work assignment.
ACCIDENT INVESTIGATION
The purpose of Accident Investigation is to prevent the same type of accident from reoccurring. An accident investigation will begin immediately after the medical crisis is resolved.
Near-miss mishaps, events which result in no injury or damage, will be investigated because, even though the outcomes are different, the causes are the same.
Your responsibility, should you be involved as a witness in an accident investigation, is to fully answer questions that may be asked of you so that future accidents may be prevented.
POSTINGS
There will be a prominently displayed bulletin board or area for postings. You must be aware of the location of the following posted items:
a. OSHA Form 3165, It’s the law!.
b. Emergency phone numbers & facility address for emergency response.
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c. During the period from 1 February through to April 30, OSHA Form 300A, Summary of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses, must be posted for work-related injuries and illnesses which have occurred during the previous year.
If appropriate, the following will be posted:
a. OSHA citations.
b. Notice of informal hearing conference.
c. Names and location of assigned first aid providers.
d. Air or wipe sampling results.
e. Emergency action plan.
SAFETY MEETINGS
Depending on the work at hand, safety meetings may be held during the work shift. Successful safety meetings demand interactive participation by the presenter as well as those attending. Pay attention, feel free to ask questions, and ensure that, at the completion of a safety meeting, you have no unanswered safety questions.
ENFORCEMENT
It is expected that all employees will abide by our safety rules and guidelines not only to protect themselves, but also to protect their fellow workers from harm. Should a safety violation occur, the following steps will be taken by the employee’s immediate supervisor:
a. Minor Safety Violations: Violations which would not reasonably be expected to result in serious injury.
1. The hazardous situation will be corrected.
2. The employee will be informed of the correct procedures to follow and the supervisor will ensure that these procedures are understood.
3. The supervisor will make a written report of the occurrence using our Enforcement Documentation Form and inform the employee that this documentation will be forwarded to the Safety Director for a retention period of one year.
4. A repeat occurrence of the same minor safety violation is considered substantially more serious than the first.
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b. Major Safety Violations: Violations which would reasonably be expected to result in serious injury or death.
1. The hazardous situation will be corrected.
2. The employee will be informed of the correct procedures to follow and will impress upon the individual the severity of the violation and the likely consequences should this type of violation be repeated. The supervisor will ensure that the individual understands the correct procedures and will be cautioned that a reoccurrence could result in disciplinary action up to and including discharge.
3. The supervisor will make a written report of the occurrence using our Enforcement Documentation Form and inform the employee that this documentation will be forwarded to the Safety Director for a retention period of one year.
c. Willful Major Safety Violations: Intentional violation of a safety rule which would reasonably be expected to result in serious injury to the employee or a fellow worker.
1. The hazardous situation will be corrected.
2. The employee will be removed from the job site, the event will be documented and forwarded to the Safety Director, and the employee will be discharged.
Employees are to understand that the primary purpose of documenting safety violations is to ensure that the important business of employee safety is taken seriously and that the potential for injury is reduced to the lowest possible level.
Schedule of Enforcement Actions for Violations within a 1 Year Period
Minor Violation
Offense
Action
Repeat of Same Offense
Action
1st
Written Notice
1st
1 Day Off
2nd
Written Notice
2nd
3 Days Off
3rd
1 Day Off
3rd
Dismissal
4th
2 Days Off
5th
3 Days Off
6th
Dismissal
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Major Violation
Offense
Action
Repeat of Same Offense
Action
1st
Written Notice
1st
4 Days Off
2nd
2 Days Off
2nd
Dismissal
3rd
4 Days Off
4th
Dismissal
HAZARDOUS JOB SITE MATERIALS
When working in or around older structures, potential asbestos and lead hazards may exist. On many job sites, the potential for crystalline silica exposure may exist. The presence of these hazards, and the appropriate PPE and respiratory protection requirements, will be disclosed before any work begins.
Should these materials be “discovered” as work progresses, we will protect our employees from these hazards by:
a. identification of these items by the competent person.
b. informing the owner, project designer, or engineer of the hazards.
c. securing the areas in question until testing proves samples to be
negative.
Asbestos can be found in pipe, wall, and boiler insulation; exterior sheeting; and flooring. Friable or crumbling asbestos presents the most hazard as it can float in the air and be inhaled into the respiratory system. Without respiratory protection, the microscopic asbestos fibers can enter the deepest portion of the lung, causing scar tissue to develop and stiffen the lung. The net result is a reduction of gas exchange — a condition called asbestosis.
Lead can be found in water pipes, soldering, and paint. Lead is a heavy, toxic metal which can be absorbed into your body by ingestion and/or inhalation. It is a cumulative poison which can stay in your body for decades.
While massive doses of lead can kill in a matter of days, the more likely scenario on a job site is moderate exposure to asbestos or lead which probably would not create any health problems for years — if at all.
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Crystalline Silica can be readily found on many job sites in rocks as well as many concrete and masonry products. Crystalline Silica can be released in the air when employees are performing such tasks as:
a. chipping, hammering, drilling, crushing, or hauling rock.
b. abrasive blasting.
c. sawing, hammering, drilling, or sweeping concrete or masonry.
Unprotected respiratory exposure to crystalline silica may cause a lung disease called silicosis.
Because of the chronic (long term) nature of these hazards, detrimental health effects due to exposure would not be immediately noticed.
The competent person on site will prevent exposures to these materials.
Areas that contain the above materials will be cordoned off and protected with appropriate warning signs. Do not enter any restricted area unless dictated by job assignment and only after specific training for dealing with these hazards. The training would include PPE, respiratory protection, work procedures, medical surveillance, containment, hygiene, handling, testing, and labeling.
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SPECIFIC OSHA COMPLIANCE PROGRAMS
When you are confronted by situations listed below, you must perform your tasks in accordance with our written programs which comply with specific OSHA standards. Below is an overview of each program.
Control of Hazardous Energy – Lockout/Tagout
Applicable: to servicing and maintenance of machines and equipment where the unexpected energization, start up or release of stored energy could occur and cause injury.
Not
Applicable: to routine, repetitive, integral procedures such as minor adjustments & tool changes. Work on cord and plug connected equipment where unplugging negates the hazard and the plug is in the control of the person doing the work.
Hazard: possibility of being crushed, dismembered, mangled, paralyzed, electrocuted, sliced, or punctured by the sudden release of energy such as the following sources: capacitor, chemical, counter weight, electrical, engine, flywheel, hydraulic, pneumatic, spring, thermal, or gravity.
Procedures
Preparation for Shutdown: Using the Energy Source Evaluation, all isolating devices must be located.
Equipment Shutdown: Inform the affected person and use normal shut down procedures.
Equipment Isolation: Physically isolate the equipment from its energy source(s) — there may be more than one.
Device application: Apply color coded locks and/or tags to hold the isolating devices in a “Neutral” or “Off” position.
Release of Stored Energy: Dissipate stored energy.
Verification of Isolation: Prior to work, operate machine controls and ensure the machine will not operate.
Release from
Lockout/Tagout: The person who applied the devices is the one who removes them after ensuring the area is clear and affected employees are informed. LOVIN CONTRACTING COMPANY INC.
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Exposure Control Plan
(for bloodborne pathogens or other infectious materials)
An exposure control plan is required when emergency medical response is not available within a reasonable time frame and personnel are assigned as first aid providers as an additional duty.
The primary hazard relates to the possibility of infection resulting from exposure to blood-borne pathogens or other infectious materials while providing first aid to a trauma victim or cleaning up bodily fluids after an incident.
As a statement of policy, should an exposure control plan be required, Universal Precautions will be used. Essentially, this means that each trauma victim’s blood, bodily fluids, and other potentially infectious materials will be treated as if they are know to be infectious.
First aid providers must understand:
a. the hazards of bloodborne pathogens and other infectious materials.
b. engineering & work practice controls designed to minimize possible exposure such as:
1. handwashing equipment & procedures.
2. eating; drinking & smoking prohibitions.
3. the containment of contaminated sharps.
4. the containment of other regulated waste.
5. the disposal of contaminated sharps & regulated waste
6. controlling splashing/spraying of potentially infectious materials.
7. the prohibition of mouth pipetting (the mouth suction of blood through a tube).
c. the need to place an impermeable barrier between potential infectious materials and the provider’s work clothes, street clothes, undergarments, skin, eyes, mouth, or other mucous membranes using:
1. disposable gloves
2. utility gloves
3. eye & respiratory protection
4. protective body clothing
d. hepatitis B epidemiology and how bloodborne pathogens are transmitted.
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e. the importance of hepatitis B vaccination within 24 hours of possible exposure.
f. the procedure for incident report preparation and the importance of completing them, in writing, before the end of the work shift.
Fall Protection
Fall protection is required for employees working six feet or more above walking/working surface, when there is a potential for objects to fall on them, or when they are working around covers.
The obvious hazard is falling or being hit by a falling object.
A fall protection plan is required when conventional fall protection systems are infeasible.
Through training, employees must know where conventional fall protection systems are required such as when working on or around:
1. unprotected sides and edges
2. leading edges
3. hoist areas
4. holes
5. formwork & reinforcing steel
6. ramps, runways & other walkways.
7. excavations
8. dangerous equipment
9. overhand bricklaying & related work
10. roofing work on low-sloped roofs
11. steep roofs
12. precast concrete erection
13. residential construction
14. wall openings
Additionally, employees must understand:
a. the selection, use, and maintenance of fall protection system(s).
b. the types of fall protection systems:
1. guardrail system
2. personal fall arrest system
3. safety net system
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4. warning line system
5. safety monitoring system
6. positioning device system
7. controlled access zone (CAZ)
8. covers
9. protection from falling objects.
Forklifts
Forklifts include: fork trucks; tractors; platform lift trucks; motorized hand trucks; and other specialized industrial trucks powered by electric motors or internal combustion engines.
The primary hazards involved in truck operation are:
1. physically hitting a person/object with the truck or load.
2. having a load fall and hit the operator or other person.
3. having the truck tip and crush the operator or other person.
4. fire or explosion during refueling/recharging.
Supervisors should ensure that truck operators are authorized by the Program Administrator. Authority to operate a truck will be revoked if unsafe acts are observed or it is apparent that the operator has not retained the knowledge and job skills necessary to safely perform truck operations.
Supervisors should caution employees not involved with truck operations to stay clear of them due to limited visibility of the operator and the size and weight of the vehicle and load.
Hazard Communication
Practically all chemical products have physical or health hazards if they are inadvertently spilled or improperly used. Our Hazard Communication Plan details the methods used to keep our employees informed of these potential hazards.
The Program Administrator will ensure that all personnel understand:
a. the importance and use of labels; material safety data sheets (MSDS); and the ready accessibility of MSDS.
b. the physical & health hazards of chemicals used in the workplace.
c. the methods used to detect the release of a hazardous chemical.
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d. the methods to protect oneself from chemical hazards including PPE; work practices; & emergency procedures.
e. the need to share product information with other contractors.
Hearing Conservation
Supervisors are to ensure that employees are not exposed to occupational noises that exceed the levels listed below. Excessive noise may cause permanent hearing loss. Supervisors should be aware that hearing loss is often painless and unnoticeable.
Permissible Noise Exposures
Sound level
Duration per day, hours dBA slow response
8 90
6 92
4 95
3 97
2 100
1 1/2 102
1 105
1/2 110
1/4 or less 115
The Program Administrator will ensure that applicable standards are posted, medical surveillance and noise monitoring are instituted, and that all affected personnel understand the process of hearing and the importance of preventing hearing loss.
Permit-Required Confined Space
Permit-required confined spaces may present a very hazardous environment if specific procedures, testing, and training are not implemented prior to entry. As a reminder:
A confined space is a space that:
is large enough and so configured that an employee can bodily enter and perform assigned work; and
has limited or restricted means for entry or exit. These spaces may include: ventilation or exhaust ducts, bins and tanks, boilers, sewers, tunnels and open top spaces more that 4 feet in depth such as pits, tubs, and vessels; and
is not designed for continuous employee occupancy.
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A permit-required confined space is:
a confined space that contains any recognized serious safety or health hazards. These hazards may be: engulfment by materials; entrapment by space shape; inhalation of hazardous (possibly fatal) atmospheres.
Supervisors should ensure that employees understand:
1. the need to identify and evaluate permit space hazards before entry.
2. the need to test conditions before entry and monitor conditions during entry.
3. how to prevent unauthorized entry.
4. how to eliminated or control hazards for safe permit-space entry operations.
5. the need to ensure that at least one attendant is stationed outside the permit-required space for the duration of the entry operations.
6. how to coordinate and monitor entry operations when we are working with employees of another contractor or client within a permit-required confined space.
7. our procedures for emergency rescue.
8. the establishment of a written procedure for preparation, issuance, use, and cancellation of entry permits.
Personal Protective Equipment
A hazard assessment will be made on all job sites to determine what types of personal protective equipment (PPE) are appropriate. A major part of this hazard assessment will be determining what PPE needs can be eliminated through feasible engineering controls or work procedures.
Types of hazard categories that are considered are: impact; penetration; compression; chemical; heat; harmful dust; and light radiation.
The focus of PPE is to eliminate eye, hand, foot, limb, and head injury. Visitors exposed to the identified hazards will be loaned appropriate PPE (and given instruction in its use) prior to hazard exposure.
You must understand the limitations of your PPE; the correct procedure for putting on, adjusting, and removing the PPE; and the proper care, maintenance, and useful life of the PPE.
Cleanliness of PPE is of importance particularly when dealing with eye protection where fogging, scratches, or dirt can render the PPE a hazard rather than protection from a hazard.
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Unique PPE required for job performance such as hard hats, respirators, ear plugs, safety goggles, etc. will be supplied to the employees. They are responsible for maintenance of the equipment issued to them. Items of PPE that are damaged or non-functioning should be turned in for repair or replacement.
For personal comfort and to eliminate nuisance noises and nuisance respiratory conditions that are not at or above the threshold level for required protection, dust masks and ear plugs may be used at any time.
Respiratory Protection
As a supervisor, it is extremely important that you do not allow employees to be exposed to atmospheres that do not contain clean, breathable air free from contaminants that exceed permissible exposure limits.
Respiratory hazards can range from mildly irritating to fatal.
Because of the serious consequences of improperly using respiratory protection, those for whom it applies, must understand:
1. the importance of medical approval for respiratory use.
2. the respirator selection process.
3. how to determine the service life of particulate filters.
4. fit testing.
5. user seal tests.
6. the importance of work area surveillance.
7. cleaning, inspection & maintenance of respirators.
Of course, job sites often contain nuisance dusts that do not exceed permissible exposure limits. In these cases, employees may wear dust masks for personal comfort. Supervisors should caution those wearing dust masks that they do not offer true respiratory protection.
Of course, job sites often contain nuisance dusts that do not exceed permissible exposure limits. In these cases, employees may wear dust masks for personal comfort.
OSHA standards require that if an employer provides respirators for employee voluntary use or if you provide your own respirator, you must be
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provided Appendix D of 29 CFR 1910.134. This appendix is printed below and all employees must read it.
Scaffolds & Ladders
Applicable: when you are required to install, use, or dismantle a scaffold or ladder.
Not
Applicable: to fall protection required on a walking/working surface six feet above a lower level — this is addressed in a Fall Protection Program.
Hazards: fall, electrical, and falling objects.
Standard Number: 1910.134 App D
Standard Title: (Mandatory) Information for Employees Using Respirators When not Required Under Standard.
Respirators are an effective method of protection against designated hazards when properly selected and worn. Respirator use is encouraged, even when exposures are below the exposure limit, to provide an additional level of comfort and protection for workers. However, if a respirator is used improperly or not kept clean, the respirator itself can become a hazard to the worker. Sometimes, workers may wear respirators to avoid exposures to hazards, even if the amount of hazardous substance does not exceed the limits set by OSHA standards. If your employer provides respirators for your voluntary use, of if you provide your own respirator, you need to take certain precautions to be sure that the respirator itself does not present a hazard. You should do the following: 1. Read and heed all instructions provided by the manufacturer on use, maintenance, cleaning and care, and warnings regarding the respirators limitations. 2. Choose respirators certified for use to protect against the contaminant of concern. NIOSH, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, certifies respirators. A label or statement of certification should appear on the respirator or respirator packaging. It will tell you what the respirator is designed for and how much it will protect you. 3. Do not wear your respirator into atmospheres containing contaminants for which your respirator is not designed to protect against. For example, a respirator designed to filter dust particles will not protect you against gases, vapors, or very small solid particles of fumes or smoke. 4. Keep track of your respirator so that you do not mistakenly use someone else’s respirator.
[63 FR 1152, Jan. 8, 1998; 63 FR 20098, April 23, 1998] LOVIN CONTRACTING COMPANY INC.
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The Program Administrator will ensure that employees understand:
1. the procedures for dealing with the above hazards.
2. the proper use of scaffolds & ladders
3. the load and the load-carrying capacities of the scaffold.
During routine job site inspections, supervisors should be constantly vigilant for violations of the below ladder safety rules and take immediate corrective action to ensure the safety of our employees:
a. a stairway or a ladder will be provided at all personnel points of access where there is a break in elevation of 19 inches or more.
b. ladders will never be overloaded.
c. ladder rungs, cleats, and steps must be parallel, level, and uniformly spaced when a ladder is in position for use.
d. ladders will not be tied or fastened together unless they are so designed.
e. portable ladders used for gaining access to an upper level will extend at least 3 feet above the upper landing surface or the ladder will be secured at its top.
f. ladders must be free of oil, grease, or other slipping hazards.
g. ladders must be used for the purpose for which they were designed.
h. non-self supporting ladders will be used at an angle that the horizontal distance from the top support to the foot of the ladder is approximately ¼ of the working length of the ladder.
i. ladders will only be used on stable and level surfaces unless secured to prevent displacement.
j. ladders shall not be used on slippery surfaces unless secured or provided with slip-resistant feet to prevent accidental displacement.
k. ladders placed in any location where they can be displaced by workplace activities or traffic will be secured to prevent accidental displacement, or a barricade will be used to keep the activities or traffic away from the ladder.
l. the area around the top and bottom of the ladder shall be kept clear.
m. ladders shall not be moved, shifted, or extended while occupied.
n. the top step of a stepladder shall not be used as a step.
o. portable ladders with structural defects will be immediately marked in a manner that readily identifies them as defective and removed from service.
p. when ascending or descending a ladder, one must face the ladder.
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q. employees must use at least one hand to grasp the ladder when progressing up and/or down the ladder.
r. employees are not to carry any object or load that could cause loss
of balance and a resultant fall.
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EMPLOYEE ACKNOWLEDGMENT
PLEASE READ, SIGN, & RETURN THIS FORM TO THE JOB SITE SUPERVISOR OR THE SAFETY PROGRAM ADMINISTRATOR.
I have read and understand the contents of this Employee Handbook.
I will, to the best of my ability, work in a safe manner and follow established work rules and procedures.
I will ask for clarification of safety procedures of which I am not sure prior to performing a task.
I will report to the job site supervisor or competent person any unsafe acts or procedures and will ensure they are addressed and resolved before continuing work.
I understand that the complete safety program is located at:
and is available for my review.
________________________________________________
(Employee Name)
________________________________________________
(Signature)
________________________________________________
(Date)
LOVIN CONTRACTING COMPANY INC.
LOVIN CONTRACTING COMPANY INC.
P.O. BOX 758
ROBBINSVILLE, NC 28771